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Within the bounds of endogamy defined by the above parameters, close consanguineous unions are preferred due to a congruence of key features of group- and individual-level background factors as well as affinities.
Mc Kim Marriott claims a social stratification that is hierarchical, closed, endogamous and hereditary is widely prevalent, particularly in western parts of Pakistan.
A similar exercise was made during the reign of Mahindra Malla (1506–75).
When the Spanish colonized the New World, they used the word to mean a "clan or lineage".
In 2005, government recorded approximately 110,000 cases of reported violent acts, including rape and murder, against Dalits The socio-economic limitations of the caste system are reduced due to urbanization and affirmative action.
Nevertheless, the caste system still exists in endogamy and patrimony, and thrives in the politics of democracy, where caste provides ready made constituencies to politicians.
The system of varnas appears in Hindu texts dating back to 1000 BCE and envisages the society divided into four classes: Brahmins (teachers, scholars and priests), Kashatriyas (warriors and nobles), Vaishyas (farmers, traders and artisans) and Shudras (labourers/service providers).
The texts do not mention any separate, untouchable category in varna classification.